SOS Homophobie, Rapport sur l’homophobie 2008, May 16, 2008, http://www.sos-homophobie.org/index.php?menu=1&menu_option=12&news=75#chap75.
 While not purporting to provide comprehensive or country-wide coverage, NCAVP draws upon monitors in major cities including San Francisco, Chicago, Columbus, Ohio, Houston, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, and New York, and the states of Colorado, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and Vermont. The National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, Anti-Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Violence in 2007, NCAVP, New York: 2008, http://www.ncavp.org/common/document_files/Reports/2007HVReportFINAL.pdf.
 Maneo, Maneo Survey 2006/2007, Berlin: 2007; Human Rights First correspondence with Bastian Finke, Maneo Project Director, on August 7, 2008.
 Maneo, Homophobia and Violence Against Gays in Public Space. How can light be shed on unreported cases – can gays be better protected against attacks? Human Rights First correspondence with Bastian Finke, Maneo Project Director, August 7, 2008.
 Human Rights Watch, We Need a Law for Liberation: Gender, Sexuality, and Human Rights in a Changing Turkey, May 2008, http://hrw.org/reports/2008/turkey0508/turkey0508webwcover.pdf.
 U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2007: Croatia, March 11, 2008, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/index.htm.
 U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2007: Germany, March 11, 2008, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/index.htm.
 “Police Criticised After Budapest Gay Bar Set on Fire,” UK Gay News, June 28, 2008, http://www.ukgaynews.org.uk/Archive/08/Jun/2801.htm.
 “Another Gay Business Torched in Budapest: One injured in Sauna Attack,” UK Gay News, July 3, 2008, http://www.ukgaynews.org.uk/Archive/08/Jul/0303.htm.
 “Man’s horror at homophobic attack,” BBC News, June 6, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/7439296.stm.
 “La sporca guerra dell’omofobia,” Arcigay, May 28, 2008, http://www.puta.it/blog/2008/05/28/queer/la-sporca-guerra-dellomofobia/.
 “Italian Government lobbied for gay hate crime law,” Topix Gay News, May 27, 2008, http://www.topix.com/news/gay/2008/05/italian-government-lobbied-for-gay-hate-crime-law.
 Labrys Kyrgyzstan, “FtM Transsexual attacked by two drunk men in Bishkek city center,” November 27, 2007, http://kyrgyzlabrys.wordpress.com/2007/11/27/ftm-transsexual-attacked-by-two-drunk-men-in-bishkek-city-center/.
 Doug Ireland, “Transphobia kills again: international call for action!” Panteras Rosa, March 14, 2008, http://gayswithoutborders.wordpress.com/2008/03/14/portugal-transphobia-kills-again-international-call-for-action/.
 Vassily Parovozov and Andrei Lavrikov, “Bitva za ‘Plevnu,’” Komsomolskaya Pravda, June 19, 2007, http://www.kp.ru/daily/23919/68819/.
 “Stolknoveniya natsi-skinhedov i antifashistov na gej-parade,” the SOVA Center for Information and Analysis, February 15, 2008, http://xeno.sova-center.ru/45A29F2/A9D172D, citing Gazeta.Ru.
 “Gay Couple in Hate Crime,” News24, July 28, 2008, http://www.news24.com/News24/World/News/0,,2-10-1462_2365561,00.html.
 Nicholas Birch, “Was Ahmet Yildiz the victim of Turkey’s first gay honor killing,” the Independent, July 19, 2008, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/was-ahmet-yildiz-the-victim-of-turkeys-first-gay-honour-killing-871822.html.
 “Gay Senior Citizen Brutally Beaten in Detroit Hate Attack Dies,” Towleroad, February 24, 2007, http://www.towleroad.com/2007/02/gay_senior_citi_1.html.
 Jessica Carreras, “Murder of California teen being charged as a hate crime Victim was taken off ventilator and pronounced dead last night,” Pride Source, February 13, 2008, http://www.pridesource.com/article.shtml?article=29271.
 Mia Dauvergne, Katie Scrim and Shannon Brennan, Hate Crime in Canada 2006, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 2006, http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/85F0033MIE/85F0033MIE2008017.pdf.
 Toronto Police Service, Hate Crime Unit, 2007 Annual Hate/Bias Crime Statistical Report, http://www.torontopolice.on.ca/publications/files/reports/2007hatecrimereport.pdf.
 The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brottsförebyggande rådet—Brå), Hate crime 2007, 2008, http://www.bra.se/extra/measurepoint/?module_instance=4&name=Hatbrott_2007_webb.pdf&url=/dynamaster/file_archive/080627/4a35a31f178add58672ff57f0fcdb92c/Hatbrott%255f2007%255fwebb.pdf.
 The Swedish Federation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights, “RFSL Comments on Hate Crimes Statistics; No One Is Born a Homophobe,” June 29, 2007, http://www.rfsl.se/public/070629_hatecrimesstats.pdf.
 Metropolitan Police, Violent Crimes Directorate, United Kingdom.
 “Homophobic” is defined by the Crown Prosecution Service as follows: a fear of or a dislike directed towards lesbian, gay or bisexual people, or a fear of or dislike directed towards their perceived lifestyle, culture or characteristics, whether or not any specific lesbian, gay or bisexual person has that lifestyle or characteristic. The dislike does not have to be as severe as hatred. It is enough that people do something or abstains from doing something because they do not like lesbian, gay, or bisexual people. “Transphobic” is defined as follows: a fear of or a dislike directed towards transpeople, or a fear of or dislike directed towards their perceived lifestyle, culture or characteristics, whether or not any specific transperson has that lifestyle or characteristic. The dislike does not have to be as severe as hatred. It is enough that people do something or abstains from doing something because they do not like transgender people. Crown Prosecution Services, Policy for Prosecuting Cases of Homophobic and Transphobic Hate Crime, November 2007, http://www.cps.gov.uk/publications/docs/htc_policy.pdf.
 Northern Ireland Central Statistics Branch, Operational Support Department, Hate Incidents and Crimes 1st April 2007 – 31st March 2008, 2008, http://www.psni.police.uk/3._hate_incidents_and_crimes-4.pdf.
 The FBI does not collect statistics on hate crime offenses based on gender identity bias. U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reports, http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm.
 U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2007: the Netherlands, March 11, 2008, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/index.htm.
 Response of the Equality and Antidiscrimination Ombudsman to a Human Rights First questionnaire, October 2, 2007.
 “Justice Ministry urges crackdown on hate crimes,” Aftenposten, September 17, 2007, http://www.aftenposten.no/english/local/article1998761.ece.
 The 11 states include: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, and Vermont.
 Regarding data collection, the Hate Crimes Statistics Act of 1990 – a federal law – includes provisions for the collection of statistics on sexual orientation bias crimes.
 The 1968 “Federal Hate Crime Statute,” 18 USC 245, outlines the six federally protected activities as follows: “ (1) A student at or applicant for admission to a public school or public college; (2) A participant in a benefit, service, privilege, program, facility or activity provided or administered by a state or local government; (3) An applicant for private or state employment; a private or state employee; a member or applicant for membership in a labor organization or hiring hall; or an applicant for employment through an employment agency, labor organization or hiring hall; (4) A juror or prospective juror in state court; (5) A traveler or user of a facility of interstate commerce or common carrier; (6) A patron of a public accommodation or place of exhibition or entertainment, including hotels, motels, restaurants, lunchrooms, bars, gas stations, theaters, concert halls, sports arenas or stadiums.”
 Crown Prosecution Service, Guidance on Prosecuting Cases of Homophobic and Transphobic Crime, November 2007, http://www.cps.gov.uk/publications/doc/htc_guidance.pdf.
 The European Court of Human Rights, Baczkowski and Others v. Poland, para. 64, Strasbourg, May 3, 2007.
 European Parliament, Homophobia in Europe, P6_TA(2007)0167, April 26, 2007, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+TA+P6-TA-2007-0167+0+DOC+PDF+V0//EN.
 Claudia Ciobanu, “Hate Wave Threatens Bulgaria’s New Gay Pride,” OneWorld.net, July 3, 2008, http://us.oneworld.net/article/hate-wave-threatens-bulgarias-new-gay-pride.
 Agence France-Presse, “Violence at Croatian Gay Pride march,” Internet Centre Anti Racism Europe, July 7, 2007, http://www.icare.to/news.php?en#GAY%20PRIDE%20%20POLITICAL%20WILL%20NEED%20TO%20CHANGE%20ATTITUDES%20.
 “Hate crime charge over petrol bombs at Pride,” Pink News, July 16, 2007, http://www.pinknews.co.uk/news/articles/2005-4945.html.
 Tony Grew, “Pride petrol bomber jailed for attempted attack,” Pink News, February 26, 2008, http://www.pinknews.co.uk/news/articles/2005-6961.html.
 “12 Injured as Gay Pride Marchers Attacked in Estonia,” Mosnews.com, August 13, 2006, http://www.mosnews.com/news/2006/08/13/gaypride.shtml.
 U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2007: Hungary, March 11, 2008, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/index.htm.
 Sandor Peto and Krisztina Than, “Anti-gay violence mars Hungarian parade,” the Star Online, July 6, 2008, http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2008/7/6/worldupdates/2008-07-06T094921Z_01_NOOTR_RTRMDNC_0_-343906-1&sec=Worldupdates.
 “Gay rights groups protest in Riga,” BBC News, June 3, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6716287.stm.
 Amnesty International, “Latvia: Riga Pride 2007: championing equal rights,” AI News Service, EUR 52/004/2007, June 14, 2007 http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?lang=e&id=ENGEUR520042007.
 Ilvija P?ce, Legal Study on Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual orientation, Latvia, the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Riga: February 2008, http://fra.europa.eu/fra/material/pub/comparativestudy/FRA-hdgso-NR_LV.pdf.
 “Peaceful Gay Pride Staged in Riga Amid Tight Security,” UK Gay News, June 3, 2007 http://ukgaynews.org.uk/Archive/07/June/0305.htm.
 Reuters, “Latvian Gay Priders Hit With Eggs and Excrement,” Internet Centre Anti Racism Europe, July 22, 2006, http://www.icare.to/news.php?en/2006-07.
 “Lawmaker’s Assistant Convicted of Throwing Faeces at Riga Gay Pride,” UK Gay News, January 15, 2008, http://ukgaynews.org.uk/Archive/08/Jan/1502.htm.
 “Aide to Latvian MP convicted of Pride attack,” Pink News, January 16, 2008, http://www.pinknews.co.uk/news/articles/2005-6567.html.
 Karen Ryan, “No pride in Moldova; gay event attacked by homophobic mob,” the Tiraspol Times, May 4, 2007, http://www.tiraspoltimes.com/news/gays_no_pride_in_moldova.html.
 Christian Taylor, “Gay Pride Parade Trapped on Bus,” SameSame.com.ua, May 12, 2008, http://www.samesame.com.au/news/international/2413/Gay-Pride-Parade-Trapped-On-Bus.htm.
 GenderDoc-M, “Moldovan Gay Pride Threatened, Cops Refuse Protection for Marchers,” May 11, 2008, http://mpetrelis.blogspot.com/2008/05/moldovan-gay-pride-threatened-cops.html.
 Deutsche Presse-Agentur, “Polish gay pride marchers under police guard (Roundup),” M&C, June 7, 2008, http://www.monstersandcritics.com/news/europe/news/article_1409857.php/Polish_gay_pride_marchers_under_police_guard__Roundup_.
 “Thousands Celebrate Warsaw’s First Legal Pride,” 365Gay.Com, May 19, 2007, http://www.365gay.com/Newscon07/05/051907warsaw.htm.
 Agence France-Presse, “Thousands Rally For Gay March in Warsaw,” Deutsche Welle, June 10, 2006, http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,2051002,00.html.
 ILGA-Europe, “Various news items and reports from Bucharest Pride 2007,” June 10, 2007 http://www.ilga-europe.org/europe/news/bucharest_pride_2007.
 Reuters, “Protesters clash with police at Romania gay parade,” AlertNet, June 9, 2007 http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L09656251.htm.
 ILGA-Europe, “Various news items and reports from Bucharest Pride 2007,” June 10, 2007 http://www.ilga-europe.org/europe/news/bucharest_pride_2007.
 U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2007: Romania, March 11, 2008, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/index.htm.
 Reuters, “Gay activists march in Romania despite opposition,” Reuters UK, May 24, 2008, http://uk.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSL245959720080524.
 “From Russia with Gay Love–Blogging from Moscow Pride,” UK Gay News, June 3, 2008, http://www.ukgaynews.org.uk/Archive/08/May/3107.htm.
 Doug Ireland, “Moscow Pride Banned Again,” UK Gay News, May 17, 2007, http://www.ukgaynews.org.uk/Archive/08/May/3107.htm.
 Human Rights Watch and ILGA-Europe, We Have the Upper Hand: Freedom of assembly in Russia and the human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people, June 2007, http://www.ilga-europe.org/europe/guide/country_by_country/russia/report_on_moscow_pride_2007_in_english.
 U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2007: Slovenia, March 11, 2008, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/index.htm.
 ILGA-Europe, “Ljubljana Pride ends in Violence,” June 24, 2008, http://www.ilga-europe.org/europe/guide/country_by_country/slovenia/ljubljana_pride_2008_ends_in_violence.
 Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Additional Recommendations, March 26, 2007, http://www.yogyakartaprinciples.org/principles_en.htm.
 Douglas Sanders, “The Role of the Yogyakarta Principles,” International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission, August 4, 2008, http://www.iglhrc.org/site/iglhrc/section.php?id=5&detail=868.
 Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Right of the Security of the Person, March 26, 2007, http://www.yogyakartaprinciples.org/principles_en.htm.
 OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, Hate Crimes in the OSCE Region: Incidents and Responses – Annual Report for 2006, September 18, 2007, OSCE http://www.osce.org/odihr/item_11_26296.html.
 Thomas Hammarberg, “Hate crimes – the ugly face of racism, anti-Semitism, anti-Gypsyism, Islamophobia and homophobia,” Viewpoints, the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, July 21, 2008, http://www.coe.int/t/commissioner/Viewpoints/080721_en.asp.
 Thomas Hammarberg, “Homophobic policies are slow to disappear,” Viewpoints, the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, May 16, 2007, http://www.coe.int/t/commissioner/Viewpoints/070516_en.asp.
 The European Union, “Council Regulation (EC) No 168/2007 of 15 February 2007 establishing a European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights,” Official Journal of the European Union, L 53/1, February 22, 2007, http://fra.europa.eu/fra/material/pub/FRA/reg_168-2007_en.pdf.
 The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation in the EU Member States Part I – Legal Analysis, June 2008, http://fra.europa.eu/fra/material/pub/comparativestudy/FRA_hdgso_part1_en.pdf.