European Court of Human Rights, Šečić v. Croatia, para. 67, Strasbourg, July 5, 2005.  European Union, “EU: Common Criminal Provisions Against Racism and Xenophobia,” Press Release, April 20, 2007, http://www.eu2007.de/en/News/Press_Releases/April/0420BMJRassismus.html.  European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance, “ECRI general policy recommendation no.11 on combating racism and racial discrimination in policing,” CRI(2007)35, July 6, 2007, http://www.coe.int/t/e/legal_affairs/legal_co-operation/fight_against_terrorism/2_Adopted_Texts/ECRI%20GP%20Rec%2011%20racism%20and%20policing%20E.pdf.  European Court of Human Rights, Nachova and Others v. Bulgaria, para. 161, Strasbourg, July 5, 2005.  European Court of Human Rights, Šečić v. Croatia, paras. 66-67, Strasbourg, July 5, 2005.  European Roma Rights Center, “Strasbourg Court Sanctions Bulgaria for Failure to Bring Perpetrators of racist Killing to Justice,” Press Release, August 6, 2007, http://www.errc.org/cikk.php?cikk=2854.  European Court of Human Rights, Angelova and Iliev v. Bulgaria, para. 116, Strasbourg, July 26, 2007.  Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, “Tolerance and Non-Discrimination: Promoting Mutual Respect and Understanding,” OSCE Ministerial Council Decision, no. 10/05, MC.DEC/10/05, December 6, 2005, http://www.osce.org/documents/mcs/2005/12/17441_en.pdf.  OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, “ODIHR helps states to tackle hate crimes with new guidelines,” April 11, 2008, http://www.osce.org/odihr/item_2_30631.html.  Human Rights First, Overview: Hate Crime Report Card, December 2007, /wp-content/uploads/pdf/071217-discrim-hc-report-card-overview-2007.pdf, p. 33.  Bias based on sexual orientation is an aggravating circumstance in Andorra, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Denmark, France, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In the United States, although federal hate crime legislation does not extend to sexual orientation, state legislation in 30 states and the District of Columbia does. Bias based on disability is an aggravating circumstance in Andorra, Belgium, Canada, Romania, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States.  The 11 states include: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, and Vermont.  Criminal Code of Portugal (Código Penal Português), http://www.unifr.ch/derechopenal/legislacion/pt/CPPortugal.pdf.  European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Thematic Legal Study on Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation (Portugal), February 2008, http://fra.europa.eu/fra/material/pub/comparativestudy/FRA-hdgso-NR_PT.pdf.  These include article 105 (Murder), article 111 (Deliberate infliction of grievous bodily harm), article 112 (Deliberate infliction of moderate bodily harm), article 117 (Torture), article 214 (Vandalism), article 244 (Desecration).  These include article 115 (Deliberate infliction of mild bodily harm), article 116 (Assault), article 119 (Threatening murder or the infliction of serious bodily harm), article 150 (Involving a minor in the commission of a crime), and article 213 (Hooliganism).  “Antiekstremistkie popravki prinyaty v tret’em chtenii: Kratkij komemtarij,” the SOVA Center for Information and Analysis, July 6, 2007, http://xeno.sova-center.ru/89CCE27/89CD14E/975C903.  Human Rights First correspondence with Dr. Andreas Stegbauer, Judge at the County Court of Eggenfelden, July 15, 2008.  These states were joined by the eastern state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.  Human Rights First correspondence with Dr. Andreas Stegbauer, Judge at the County Court of Eggenfelden, July 15, 2008.  “Hate Crimes, Norway,” Submission to ODIHR, 2004-2005, Legislationline, http://www.legislationline.org/?tid=218&jid=38&less=false.  “Lov om endringer i straffeloven 20. mai 2005 nr. 28 mv.,” Lovdata, http://www.lovdata.no/cgi-wift/wiftldles?doc=/usr/www/lovdata/ltavd1/filer/nl-20080307-004.html&emne=homofile*&.  Bjorn Lacompte, “Skal knuse hatvold,” Nettavisen, February 14, 2008, http://www.nettavisen.no/innenriks/ioslo/article1601485.ece.  “Offenses (Aggravated by Prejudice) (Scotland) Bill,” Policy Memorandum, SP Bill 9-PM, Session 3 (2008), http://polfest.org/s3/bills/09-AggPrej/b9s3-introd-pm.pdf.  The 1968 “Federal Hate Crime Statute,” 18 USC 245, outlines the six federally protected activities as follows: “ (1) A student at or applicant for admission to a public school or public college; (2) A participant in a benefit, service, privilege, program, facility or activity provided or administered by a state or local government; (3) An applicant for private or state employment; a private or state employee; a member or applicant for membership in a labor organization or hiring hall; or an applicant for employment through an employment agency, labor organization or hiring hall; (4) A juror or prospective juror in state court; (5) A traveler or user of a facility of interstate commerce or common carrier; (6) A patron of a public accommodation or place of exhibition or entertainment, including hotels, motels, restaurants, lunchrooms, bars, gas stations, theaters, concert halls, sports arenas or stadiums.”  The data challenge is complicated in part because sentences may take into consideration a wide range of other aggravating and mitigating factors, while monitoring systems have not been established to register whether the “racist” or other bias element was in fact taken into account in sentencing.  Official response of the Government of Canada to a Human Rights First questionnaire, July 2, 2008.  Human Rights First correspondence with Tas Floris, Discrimination focal point in the Dutch National Police, September 14, 2008.  The Minister of State for Communities and Local Government, All-Party Inquiry into Antisemitism: Government Response One year on Progress Report, May 12, 2008, http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/cm73/7381/7381.pdf.  Crown Prosecution Service, Guidance on Prosecuting Cases of Homophobic and Transphobic Crime, November 2007, http://www.cps.gov.uk/publications/doc/htc_guidance.pdf.  Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism, Discriminatie, Diversiteit, Jaarverslag 2007, http://www.diversiteit.be/?action=publicatie_detail&id=32&thema=2.  Human Rights First correspondence with the Office of the Ombudsman against Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation, February 5, 2008.  The Office of the Ombudsman against Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation, Homophobic Motives as Aggravating Circumstances, http://www.homo.se/o.o.i.s/2078.  Galina Kozhevnikova, Radical Nationalism and Efforts to Counteract it in 2007, the SOVA Center for Information and Analysis, March 14, 2008, http://xeno.sova-center.ru/6BA2468/6BB4208/AC15D1E.  Tony Grew, “Pride petrol bomber jailed for attempted attack,” Pink News, February 26, 2008, http://www.pinknews.co.uk/news/articles/2005-6961.html.  Vyacheslav Likhachev, Ksenofobiya v Ukraine: Materialy Monitoringa 2007-2008, Kyiv, May 2008, p. 38.  Vyacheslav Likhachev, Ksenofobiya v Ukraine: Materialy Monitoringa 2007-2008, Kyiv, May 2008, p. 39.  Mihail Sergushev, “Apellyatsionnyj sud Kieva prigovoril chetveryh kievlyan, zabivshih do smerti 31-letnego Kang Dzhonvonga, k 13 godam lisheniya svobody kazhdogo,” Fakty, May 16, 2008, http://www.facts.kiev.ua/2008/05/16/08.htm#1.